活躍於十九世紀末、二十世紀初的美國人費諾羅沙（Ernest Francisco Fenollosa, 1853-1908，又譯為芬諾洛薩），在東西美術交流史上，扮演相當重要的角色。他於西潮風行的明治時代（1868-1912），受聘至東京帝國大學教授哲學及經濟學；不過，至日本之後，卻對東亞的美術產生極大的興趣。費氏晚年著作Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art一書，對東亞及西方世界皆有相當重要的影響。今日，無論是探討西方思維方式如何開始影響東亞學者的美術史研究，或是探索二十世紀前後，西方世界如何看待東亞美術作品，都不可忽略費諾羅沙的著作。
Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (1853-1908), was a key person in the cultural exchange between the East and the West. He was among the few Western scholars to be invited to teach in the Meiji period (1868-1912) Japan. Although Tokyo Imperial University hired him to teach philosophy and economics, he developed a strong interest in traditional Chinese and Japanese art after arriving in Japan. The book that he wrote in his later years, Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art, had a great influence in both the East and the West.
In this paper, I will focus on Fenollosa's opinions on literati painting. I will discuss whether his views were based primarily on theory or on his experience of viewing paintings. If it were the latter, which were the paintings that provoked his critical comments? Did these views result from his Western education, or did they come from so-called “Japanese taste”? What were the influences of Fenollosa's opinions in Japan and the West? This study will help us understand the art historical views of the early twentieth century and give us a different perspective on the history of artistic exchanges between China and Japan.